Ram Chandra Khatiwada

Chief Conservation Officer

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Koshitappu Wildlife Reserve (KTWR) lies partly in the 1st and partly in the 2nd Provinces of Nepal. Formerly, Koshitappu was announced as Hunting Reserve in 1969, covering an area of 12 Km2. Wild water buffalo, Bubalus arnee as it is considered as the last remnant population, is still existing in this reserve. To provide more suitable habitat to this critically endangered buffalo, reserve’s area was again enlarged to 65 Km2 in 1976. By covering some area of Sunsari, Saptari and Udayapur districts the existing area is further extended in 1980. At present the total area of KTWR is 175 Km2.

Buffer Zone (BZ) is new modality of conservation mechanism initiated firstly in Nepal. Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC) is up-scaling in KTWR as it is surrounded mostly by human settlements and agriculture lands. Reduction of HWC is necessary to safeguarding biological diversity of this reserve. Buffer Zone was declared in 2004 to provide additional efforts for saving biodiversity of KTWR. The BZ of Koshitappu Wildlife Reserve extended to Sunsari, Saptari and Udaypur districts having an area of 173 Km2. There are community-based user committees and user groups in Buffer Zone. These institutions are fully involved in community development activities and natural resource conservation lying in the BZ. At present, the BZ is playing pivotal role in maintaining courteous relationship among buffer zone people and the reserve.



The KTWR is biologically diversified as it consists of 21 species of invertebrates, 77 species of butterfly, 127 species of fish, 45 species of herpetofauna, 526 species of bird and 31 species of mammals. Similarly, floral diversity scores high position as flowering plants recorded 502 species, medicinal plants 18 species, fodder 33 species, edible plants 22 species and fern 12 species (Management Plan of KTWR and its Buffer Zone, 2018).Readmore…

Places to Visit

At Reserve’s head-office, there is an Information Center, which can provide general information about its biological diversity. The next visiting place is Hattisar, elephant house, at Reserve’s headquarter. One can entertain an “Elephant Safari” by paying fee. The other activities available on paying based are Jeep Safari, Jungle walk, Village walk, Boating, Fishing and Bird watching. The KTWR itself is a place of visiting as it is listed .readmore…

Season to Visit

KTWR represents eastern tropical flora and fauna of lowland Nepal. It ranges from 80-95 m. Rainfall occurs nearly 2019 mm annually. Maximum temperature goes up to 380 Celsius during summer (May to October) and minimum temperature falls down up to 80 Celsius during winter (November to February). Good season to visit KTWR is winter when skies are clear and temperatures are moderate.readmore…


Exceptionalities of KTWR

  • KTWR is a single wildlife reserve among its category in Nepal.

  • It is the first wetland listed in RAMSAR Sites for Nepal.

  • It is the prime habitat for Wild water buffalo.

  • It plays vital role as a biological storage of gene pool of Wild water buffalo.

  • It is heavenly places for bird watching, studying and monitoring.

  • It is a hotspot for tourism promotion in eastern Nepal.

  • It is eastern distribution limit to Dolphin.

  • It harbors no big carnivores except common leopard, Panthera pardus.

  • It creates wildlife corridor connectivity across eastern Indian cross-border.

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