The Chital, Axis axis is a moderately sized deer. The Chital is sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females, and antlers are present only on males. Antlers, as in most other cervids, are shed annually. Males Chitals have well-developed preorbital glands (near the eyes) which have stiff hairs. They also have well-developed metatarsal glands and pedal glands located in their hind legs. The chital forms matriarchal herds comprising an adult female and her offspring of the previous and the present year. Breeding takes place throughout the year.
A number of wildlives have been listed in various schedules of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. The Chital is listed in Schedule III of this Act. Like Royal Bengal tiger, one-horned rhino, elephant, snow leopard, musk deer, swamp deer, National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1973 has not given legal status to this species in Nepal.
Since Koshitappu Wildlife Reserve has lacking large carnivores like Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris and leopard, Panthera pardus population of Chital is always increasing. At present, good population of Chital can be seen across the reserve.
Habitat destruction, habitat alteration, retaliatory killing, absence of predators, are some conservation threats to this species.
The reserve’s authority has been conducting habitat restoration, solar fencing, Wild fire control, regular patrolling, and conservation education campaign for saving this species.