Makuna, tuskless male, is a wild Asian elephant, Elephas maximus found in Koshitappu Wildlife Reserve. Makuna is no doubt, the Hero of the reserve. Altogether, 17 wild elephants are surviving in the reserve. Out of these, Makuna became residential. Generally, male wildlife is living alone. However, a group of 9-11 males are seen together in Koshitappu Wildlife Reserve. One can easily seen wild elephant in this reserve.
Since 1986, the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus has been listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. The Asian elephant is listed on CITES Appendix I. It is protected by National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1973, so it is protected mammalian species for Nepal. Therefore, hunting and trade in the species and its parts and derivatives is completely prohibited.
An elephant is primarily threatened by loss of habitat, habitat degradation, fragmentation and poaching. More number of elephants with compared to less reserve’s area, easy availability of food materials outside the reserve, lacking of forest corridor, reserve surrounded by settlements and agriculture lands are major reasons that compels elephants to exit the reserve. Outside movement of elephant creating dilemma that is generally termed as human-wildlife conflict.
From the very beginning, KTWR is managing wild elephant by constructing Solar Fencing. However, nowadays it seems to be little bit unsuccessful in case of elephant. Conservation education in community is going on. Likewise, training on elephant conservation for reserve’s staff and security forces are continue process.