Nepal ranks 1st position in the world for Conservation of Forests and Wildlife. The King Surendra Bir Bikram Shahdev had issued Legal Advisory publicly by installing Inscription at Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park in 1869. While Yellowstone National Park of United States of America was announced in 1872.

Koshitappu Wildlife Reserve (KTWR) lies partly in 1st and partly in 2nd Provinces of Nepal. Formerly, Koshitappu was announced as Hunting Reserve in 1969, covering an area of 12 Km2. Wild water buffalo, Bubalus arnee as it is considered as the last remnant population, is still existing in this reserve. To provide more suitable habitat to this critically endangered buffalo, reserve’s area was again enlarged to 65 Km2 in 1976.  By covering some area of Sunsari, Saptari and Udayapur districts the existing area is further extended in 1980. At present the total area of KTWR is 175 Km2.

Buffer Zone (BZ) is new modality of conservation mechanism initiated firstly in Nepal. Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC) is up-scaling in KTWR as it is surrounded mostly by human settlements and agriculture lands. Reduction of HWC is necessary to safeguarding biological diversity of this reserve. Buffer Zone was declared in 2004 to provide additional efforts for saving biodiversity of KTWR. The BZ of Koshitappu Wildlife Reserve extended to Sunsari, Saptari and Udaypur districts having an area of 173 Km2. There are community-based user committees and user groups in Buffer Zone. These institutions are fully involved in community development activities and natural resource conservation lying in the BZ. At present, the BZ is playing pivotal role in maintaining courteous relationship among buffer zone people and the reserve.

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